Friday, 16 November 2012

TYPE AND CHARACTER


The Anatomy of Type – Part 3
Type and Character

Type is a form of illustration.
“Type is speech made visible”
Reading became important throughout and after the Russian Revolution in the early 20th century.
Accents, emphasis, pace etc are all being brought into type.
Typography has a range of visual dynamics/emphasis.

The word and surroundings can have an effect on type, depending on the context.

Dynamic/Static fonts – italic/normal – movement – masculine and feminine, for example: MALE Feminine

Image can help interpretation of type/meaning. For example, guns > stencil font > military (Characteristics)
-       Image
-       Typeface
-       Colour

Vocabulary:
-       Font
-       Typeface
-       Font family
-       Weight
-       Stroke
-       Upper/Lowercase
-       Tracking
-       Kerning
-       Serif
-       Sans Serif
-       Script
-       Symbol
-       Blackletter
-       Display
-       Monotype

Typeface:
A collection of characters, letters, numbers, symbols, punctuation etc, which have the same distinct design.
Font:
The physical means used to create a typeface, be computer code, lithographic film, metal or woodcut.
Alphanumerics: A-Z (Upper and Lowercase), numbers, basic glyphs/punctuation.

Letterforms = glyphs (single characters)

Block Font
Gothic Font
Roman Font
Script Font = all in different variations/weights, for example, condensed, light.

Helvetica = font
Helvetica Neue = font
Helvetica Bold = font (all different weights)

COLLECTIVELY CALLED A TYPEFACE OR TYPEFAMILY.
-       Variations of the single font
-       For example, Gill Sans: 7 typefaces
-       LIGHT/ITALIC
-       REGULAR/ITALIC
-       BOLD/ITALIC
-       ULTRABOLD CONDENSED
As fonts become bolder and more condensed due to tighter kerning and leading, it can make the type harder to read.

Arial and Helvetica: Arial has a rounded full stop; Helvetica has a squared full stop

Gothic: stripped down, simple Sans Serif font
Block Fonts: bold, heavy stroke, headlines, statements, short sentences
Script: Quill, Calligraphy
Roman: Newsprint, formal, serif
Roman/Gothic/Script: anatomy (serif or sans serif)
Block Gothic/Block Script/Block Roman: depends on weight/stroke

The Anatomy of Type – Part 4
Legibility and Readability

Leading: comes from the amount of lead between blocks for letterpress
Counter: negative space within a letterform/glyph – can be open or closed

We read what we see, not what’s written.

Reading becomes harder with bold/script fonts.
Serif and Gothic fonts were much easier to read. The Serif’s on Roman font’s can help articulate a word because of the space/counters around it (in body copy according to size)
An increase in Roman fonts makes it harder to read, becomes size of block/gothic fonts.
Bold – enclosing leading/spacing in counters
-       to make it easier to read by increasing leading and Improved legibility

Spacing done after to alter and improve legibility, so don’t edit for maximum legibility – fonts are already designed this way. Manipulation can destroy a typeface.

Legibility: 
Is the degree to which glyphs (individual characters) in text are understandable or recognizable based on appearance?

Legibility relies on individual letterforms and their anatomy.

Readability:
Is the ease in which text can be read and understood. It’s influenced by line length, primary and secondary leading, justification, typestyle, kerning, tracking, point size etc.

Tracking: spacing out a set of glyphs.
Kerning: pulling together letters on the baseline.

Use no more than 3 fonts: but you can use a large type family. 

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